"Sandpatch" has only a small patch of sand and about 10km of rocks. Only 12km from the city centre of Albany you will find yourself about 80km above the Southern Ocean, with incredible views, and surrounded by one of the best examples of wind farms in the world!
Thank you to SKYPRINTS for your stunning photos of this beautiful piece of coastline.
Start by following the path under the huge wind turbines. You will find a number of interpretive panels about the wind farm, as well as information about the six seasons of the Noongar calendar. There is an awesome viewing platform at the Sandpatch. The Bibbulum Track passes through the Wind Farm and you can take the path either left or right. The ocean and rugged coastline is always in sight and there are plenty of wild flowers and orchids to be seen during the different seasons.
The Albany Wind Farm on our Amazing South Coast is one of the most spectacular and largest wind farms in Australia.
It is a wind power station owned by Verve Energy. It has 18 wind turbines, with a maximum generating capacity of 35.4 MW of electricity. It was commissioned in October 2001, after ten years of planning. The wind farm has the capacity to produce 80 per cent of the electricity requirements of Albany.
The farm originally had 12 wind turbines, with 6 extra turbines installed in 2011. The original turbines are ENERCON model E66, each with three 35 metres (115 ft) long blades made from fibreglass and kevlar (making them very flexible in order to withstand any conditions) and are fitted to 65 metres (213 ft) towers. The nose cone which the blades attach to weighs around 14 tonnes. These turbines are the largest that have been installed in the southern hemisphere. The turbines operate automatically, with the three blades adjusted to make best use of power output from any wind direction or strength. They have been designed to withstand the strongest winds likely in Albany and incorporate special lightning protection. Each turbine has a rating of 1.8 MW and is able to produce electrical energy at wind speeds of 7–130 kilometres per hour (4–70 kn) at which the turbines are shut down. Maximum output is achieved at a wind speed of 50 kilometres per hour (27 kn). The 6 new turbines installed in 2011 are ENERCON model E70 with a rating of 2.3 MW. The turbines were made in Germany.
Albany wind farm is situated on the coast about 12 kilometres (7 mi) south-west of the city. It is in an elevated position at approximately 80 metres (262 ft) above the Southern Ocean. The height and locality is designed to maximise exploitation of local wind conditions, and combined with the short distance to the main electricity transmission system make this an outstanding wind farm site.
The wind farm walk offers spectacular views of the eco-friendly turbines along the Torndirrup Peninsula at Sand Patch.
One of Western Australia’s iconic beaches, Greens Pool is a must see destination and just a 40 minute drive from HideAway Haven. Spend the day in Denmark, there is so much to experience and discover.
Greens Pool lies on the edge of William Bay National Park and is famous for its turquoise green waters and pristine white sandy beach. Large granite boulders surround the pool, protecting it from the might of the Southern Ocean.
Beautiful at all times of the year, Greens Pool is especially popular in summer. The calm waters provide great recreation opportunities for the whole family. You can swim or snorkel or just relax on the beach or on the rocks overlooking the water.
Many fish and sea creatures live in the calm waters of Greens Pool. Why not go for a snorkel and explore this fascinating seascape? Zebra fish, silver drummer, six-spined leatherjackets and mosaic sea stars are just some of the creatures you may encounter.
The Lily, also known as The Lily Dutch Windmill, is a tower mill located near the towns of Amelup and Borden It is Australia's only working traditional windmill.
The Lily is a 16th-century Dutch design windmill of brick construction with 24.6-metre (81 ft) diameter sails. It was built by Dutch born Pleun Hitzert between 1991 and 1997. The Lily is a flour mill equipped with one set of millstones. It is the only working windmill of traditional construction on mainland Australia. Its uniqueness in the Australian landscape combined with the proximity of the Stirling Range has made The Lily a popular tourist landmark.
The design of The Lily is inspired by several windmills from the Netherlands but most notably by that of De Lelie (Dutch for "The Lily") located in Puttershoek. The tapering brick tower of The Lily is five storeys high and is of circular cross section. The tower measures in excess of 25 metres (82 ft) from the base of the footing to the cap bearing plate. The wall thickness varies between 550 millimetres and 600 mm. The cap has a mass of approximately 22 tonnes (22 long tons; 24 short tons)and is able to rotate through a full 360 degrees to face the wind. The Common sails are of welded steel stock construction with Russian larch latticework.Canvas sails can be fitted over the latticework to catch more wind and improve the power the windmill can generate.
The Lily has 24.6-metre (81 ft) diameter sails with stocks constructed of welded steel rectangular sections. In strong wind the sails can revolve at around 25 rpm, at which speed the sail tips are travelling at more than 115 kilometres per hour (71 mph). The Lily is equipped with one set of millstones for producing flour. Note that of the two millstones, only the top stone rotates. The gap between the stationary (bottom) stone and the top (rotating) stone can be manually controlled via a rope and pulley system and automatically via a centrifugal governor.
As in many windmills, The Lily features two sets of gears between the sails and the millstones. The first one is between the brake wheel and the wallower which have 63 and 29 teeth respectively. The second gear is formed by the great spur wheel and the stone nut which have 66 and 23 teeth respectively. The number of teeth in each gear has been designed to be coprime to ensure even wear and smooth running of these gears. Both gears together provide a speed increasing gear ratio between sails and millstone of ≈6.2. This means that one complete revolution of the sails causes approximately 6.2 revolutions of the (top) millstone.
The Lily features a Flemish brake design which incorporates a rope drum which lifts a loaded lever which in turn pulls a set of wooden blocks tightly around the windshaft (the shaft the sails are mounted on). This brake design which is similar to a band brake is very effective when the sails are facing the wind, but much less so when the wind is coming from behind. For this reason a ‘kneppel’ is installed which prevents counter-rotation of the sails when the windmill has stopped.
The rotating assembly of stocks, sails, windshaft, brake wheel etc. is supported on two bearings. The neck bearing supports by far the largest fraction of the weight. This is a plain bearing which supports the majority of the vertical component of the weight of the rotating assembly. The bearing block is of solid brass construction and is lubricated with animal fat. The shaft lays in a shallow groove of the neck bearing block and is kept in position by the weight of the rotating assembly. The tail bearing supports the remainder of the vertical weight and any (horizontal) thrust generated by the wind. The neck bearing does not react any thrust forces.
All the main parts of The Lily except the millstones have been constructed in the period between 1991 and 1997 virtually single-handedly by Pleun Hitzert. In preparation for building The Lily, Pleun travelled to the Netherlands to work with experienced millwrights in order to learn how to operate and build a windmill. Even though the windmill was essentially complete in 1997, no millstones were fitted at that time. This was because at that time The Lily restaurant and cafe occupied the bottom three floors of the windmill. It wasn’t until a new restaurant (housed in the re-constructed Gnowangerup railway station building) was constructed next to the windmill that the flour milling equipment could be fitted in the windmill. This work was carried out in 2003 after which The Lily produced its first flour, from grains grown on the property that surrounds the mill.
Extensive use has been made of recycled materials for the construction of The Lily.
The brick tower was constructed with handmade bricks from the Broomehill co-op store, which was destroyed by fire in 1991. These bricks were transported to The Lily's construction site and cleaned there by hand.
The structural timbers were sourced from the old Albany deep water jetty and from old telephone poles, both of which are made of native Australian wood.
The tail has been made from the stock of a sail of the windmill Landzigt in the Netherlands which was destroyed by a fire in 1990.
Cross-arms from telephone poles were used for the flooring.
Image Credit: Roel Verhoeven
The Lily can be operated by one person, but during milling the assistance of a second person is desirable. Due to its location The Lily can mill flour during most times of the year, as good winds are frequently available. Although the milling stones can be used to mill a large variety of wheat, it is almost exclusively used to produce spelt flour.
The beach is white sand and has stairway access at the western end where Taylor Inlet discharges into the ocean. Toilets, a picnic area and a caravan park are also situated at the western end of the beach. Four-wheel drive vehicles are permitted on the beach and can drive as far as Two Peoples Bay.
The beach is not patrolled by surf lifesavers and can be dangerous due to the presence of many rips along the beach. A man drowned at Nanarup in 2013 after being swept off the rocks while fishing. The area is popular for surfing, fishing and swimming.
Approximately 4.2 kilometres in length, Nanarup has scattered beachrock reefs at the eastern end for a distance of about 1.0 kilometre then curves to the southwest; the remaining length is a wave dominated surf zone that extends as far as the inlet. The beach is mostly backed by scarped 12 m calcarenite bluffs to the east and unstable dunes to the west.
The far western end of the beach has the 20 metres granite boulders of Islet point connected to the shore by a small tombolo forming a sheltered pool.
Point Possession Trail, is 6 km walk from the old Quarantine Station at Quaranup to Point Possession where George Vancouver claimed the whole of Western Australia for Great Britain.
The Quaranup / Point Possession Trail, a 6 km walk from Albany's old Quarantine Station to Point Possession. This is an easy 6km hike. Point Possession is a long, narrow isthmus with a beach on either side, leading to a low, rounded granite hill at the end. It's a scenic spot with Views of King George Sound, the shipping channel, Princess Royal Harbour and Albany Port.
Situated in a Class A nature reserve on the Vancouver Peninsula on the shoreline of Princess Royal Harbour opposite the Port of Albany, the camp has panoramic views of Albany. The complex consists of 17 separate stone and timber framed structures in varying architectural styles.
The necessity of a quarantine station arose after a number of incidences involving sickness aboard ships arriving in Albany lead to demands for a quarantine station to be built close to the port. These included an illness on the Bombay in 1865, suspected smallpox on the Rangatira in 1872 and a sick passenger aboard the Baroda the following year. No plans were made until a group of dignitaries including the Colonial Secretary, Frederick Barlee, were quarantined in tents during inclement weather on barren Mistaken Island for a period of two weeks. The irate officials then took an interest in having a permanent quarantine station close to the port. Tenders were called for and the facility was established in 1875. Initially the centre consisted of only a caretaker's cottage and jetty costing £530.
A powder magazine was built on Geake island, the windowless stone building with an iron door used to store ammunition was completed in 1878. Further additions to the complex were completed in 1897, including the doctor's and servant's quarters, isolation ward, mortuary, laundry, wash house, general store, and first class quarters. A fumigation bath house and a jetty were built in 1903. The station was used to deal with various epidemics and diseases until 1930 with a final outbreak of influenza, after this the facility was virtually closed.
The station was decommissioned in 1956. The Wheeler family then privately leased the station later the same year and the name was changed to Camp Quaranup. The Wheelers operated the camp until 1970. The site was then vested in the Shire of Albany who subsequently leased the camp to the Albany Youth Committee in 1971.
The station was classified by the National Trust in 1977. The complex was deemed significant for its architectural character and its historic foundation.
The camp was closed for late 2005 and early 2006 and reopened by Premier Alan Carpenter in April 2006 after a A$1.1 million renovation. The kitchen was refurbished, toilet blocks upgraded, new water storage and filtration equipment installed and asbestos removed from the site.
Francis Bird (14 November 1845 – 24 May 1937) was a businessman and architect in Western Australia.
Bird was born in Hyde Park in London, the third son of Mr and Mrs George Bird of Pinner Hall, Middlesex. After being articled to architects in England, he left the country and arrived in Fremantle in 1869 aboard the Bridgetown. Once settled he set up a business partnership with timber merchant Benjamin Mason named Mason, Bird and Co.By 1871 Bird had secured a timber concession over 100,000 acres (40,469 ha) in the Canning District from the British Government. In 1877 he relinquished his milling interests and settled in Perth to practice as an architect. Eventually appointed as Chief Government Architect in 1883 he remained in the position until 1884. By 1889 he moved to Albany and took up residence at Old Farm, Strawberry Hill where he remained for the rest of his life. Bird stood unsuccessfully for the seat of Albany at the 1890 general election, losing by a large margin to Lancel de Hamel
Memorial Park Cemetery is also known as Pioneer Cemetery and Old Albany Cemetery
It was constructed in 1836 and is the first consecrated cemetery in Western Australia, gazetted in 1840 as a public burial ground to provide for the needs of a growing community. It was closed as a public cemetery in 1959,[ with a few burials being held there until 2000 and ashes placed there until 2009. Most burials now being held at Allambie Park CemeteryIt is thought to be the longest serving public cemetery in Western Australia.
The hillside cemetery occupies an area of approximately 2.5 hectares (6 acres) and is divided into demoninational sections containing a total of approximately 5,000 graves. It is composed of two parts, the upper cemetery and the lower cemetery, separated by Middleton Road. Easily accessed by pedestrians the site has a number of mature native and exotic trees and a range of diversity, style and age of memorials and grave fittings on the plots
Opened for Albany's Anzac centenary commemorations in late 2014, this superb museum remembers the men and women who left by convoy from Albany to fight in WWI. Excellent multimedia installations provide realism and depth to the exhibitions, and there is a profound melancholy in the museum's location overlooking the same expansive body of water the troop ships left from.
Visitors are assigned one of 32 photographs remembering actual soldiers and nurses upon entry – including a German soldier and a Turkish soldier – they can then follow their life story ard life on the convoys, the conflicts at Gallipoli, the middle east and the Western Front and for those lucky enough to survive, their return home and the difficulties they faced adjusting back into normal society on interactive installations. The exact fate of each of the people in the 32 photographs is poignantly not revealed until the final stages of the museum.
The splendid fairywren (Malurus splendens) is a passerine bird in the Australasian wren family, Maluridae. It also known simply as the splendid wren or more colloquially in Western Australia as the blue wren. The splendid fairywren is found across much of the Australian continent from central-western New South Wales and southwestern Queensland over to coastal Western Australia. It inhabits predominantly arid and semi-arid regions. Exhibiting a high degree of sexual dimorphism, the male in breeding plumage is a small, long-tailed bird of predominantly bright blue and black colouration. Non-breeding males, females (The female resembles the non-breeding male but has a chestnut bill and eye-patch) and juveniles are predominantly grey-brown in colour; this gave the early impression that males were polygamous as all dull-coloured birds were taken for females. It comprises several similar all-blue and black subspecies that were originally considered separate species.
Like other fairywrens, the splendid fairywren is notable for several peculiar behavioural characteristics; birds are socially monogamous and sexually promiscuous, meaning that although they form pairs between one male and one female, each partner will mate with other individuals and even assist in raising the young from such trysts.Male wrens pluck pink or purple petals and display them to females as part of a courtship display.
The habitat of the splendid fairywren ranges from forest to dry scrub, generally with ample vegetation for shelter. Unlike the eastern superb fairywren, it has not adapted well to human occupation of the landscape and has disappeared from some urbanised areas. The splendid fairywren mainly eats insects and supplements its diet with seeds.
The splendid fairywren is an active and restless feeder, particularly on open ground near shelter, but also through the lower foliage. Movement is a series of jaunty hops and bounces, with its balance assisted by a proportionally large tail, which is usually held upright and rarely still. The short, rounded wings provide good initial lift and are useful for short flights, though not for extended jaunts. However, splendid fairywrens are stronger fliers than most other fairywrens During spring and summer, birds are active in bursts through the day and accompany their foraging with song. Insects are numerous and easy to catch, which allows the birds to rest between forays. The group often shelters and rests together during the heat of the day. Food is harder to find during winter and they are required to spend the day foraging continuously. The splendid fairywren is predominantly insectivorous; its diet includes a wide range of small creatures, mostly arthropods such as ants, grasshoppers, crickets, spiders and bugs. This is supplemented by small quantities of seeds, flowers, and fruit.They mostly forage on the ground or in shrubs that are less than two metres above the ground; this has been termed 'hop-searching'. They may also occasionally forage in the canopy of flowering gums. Birds tend to stick fairly close to cover and forage in groups as this foraging practice does render them vulnerable to a range of predators. Food can be scarce in winter and ants are an important 'last resort' option, constituting a much higher proportion of the diet. Adult fairywrens feed their young a different diet, conveying larger items such as caterpillars and grasshoppers to nestlings
The Australian golden whistler (Pachycephala pectoralis), or golden whistler, is a species of bird found in forest, woodland, mallee, mangrove and scrub in Australia (except the interior and most of the north) Most populations are resident, but some in south-eastern Australia migrate north during the winter. Its taxonomy is highly complex and remains a matter of dispute, with some authorities including as many as 59 subspecies of the golden whistler (one of the highest numbers of subspecies in any bird), while others treat several of these as separate species.
The male has a bright yellow underside and nape, olive-green back and wings, a black head and chest-band, and a white throat. A notable exception is the Norfolk golden whistler (P. p. xanthoprocta) where the plumage of the male is female-like. In Australia females are overall dull brownish-grey, though some have yellowish undertail coverts. Both sexes have a black bill, dark legs and red-brown eyes.
Australian golden whistlers have a strong, musical voice. The Australian golden whistler can be found in almost any wooded habitat, especially dense forests. It eats berries, insects, spiders, and other small arthropods. They usually feed alone and obtain food from the lower to middle tree level, or they may alternatively take part in mixed-species feeding flocks.
This species breeds between September and January. Male and female both work on the nest, which is a shallow bowl made of twigs, grass, and bark, and bound together with spider web. Only one brood is raised per season and both birds share incubation and care of young. Eggs hatch 15 days after they are laid and the young leave the nest after 12 days.
The noisy scrubbird (Atrichornis clamosus) is a species of bird in the Atrichornithidae family. It is endemic to the coastal heaths of south-western Australia (east of Albany). The Noisy Scrubbird features a dark brown colored back, rust-like colored wings and a speckled chestnut colored breast region with a grey-brown or pink bill and brown or silver legs and feet. They vary from 19–23 cm. in length and 25-58 grams. The males are distinguished from the females by exhibiting a black triangle on their throat. They are closely related to the Lyrebird. They prefer feeding upon small invertebrates such as ants, beetles and in the extremely dense understory and vegetative cover that only occurs after environmental damages.
A reason the noisy scrubbirds populations are so threatened are due to them being a very endemic species with specific living conditions and niche. They prefer subtropical to temperate rainforests >600 m in elevation with closed forests that are within 5–15 meters in height.They require dense ground cover wetlands with cover that only occurs in their small range after the recovery from a forest fire or other serious natural disaster such as flooding or logging events In addition, they also require very dense leaf litter to feed upon the leaf degrading invertebrates in which they prefer. They typically inhabit recovering areas after they have been recovering for approximately 10 years, but there has been reported colonizations in as soon as 2 years following the damage. The scrubbird has never been recorded to inhabit an area that has not been burnt or damaged in the previous 50 years. There known range is approximately 45 cubic km combined including the Two Peoples Bay and Bald Island populations
Noisy Scrubbirds are sexually mature at approximately 5 years of age for males and the first breeding season for females. Unlike many other birds they lay one egg at a time and have a clutch size of only 2 eggs. The nest is a circular shape structure typically build in low lying shrubbery, rushes or sedges and is made from common sticks, leaves and decaying plant matter. Males play no part in the nest, but it is believed they may defend the territory the female has laid her eggs in. The eggs are incubated for approximately 36 days prior to hatching, and then the chicks leave the nest 4–6 weeks after hatching. In a study occurring in 2005 there is considered to be approximately 695 individual scrub birds remaining, included in that approximation is 278 territorial males. It was presumed that for each territorial male there was 2.5 female
The Noisy Scrubbird is listed on the IUCN Red List as a threatened species.The populations of the Noisy Scrubbird are declining despite 50 years of conservation and management.Major threats include forest fires, predation by introduced species such as foxes, feral cats and black rats, degradation of habitat, soil fungi, introduced mammals, climate change and lack of genetic variation. The management conducted has focuses heavily on predation control and gaining data by surveying and radio trackers. While there has been some great successes with the reintroduction and management of the scrubbirds, lightening induced fires have damaged many of the management progress.
The fungi Phytophthora cinnamomi has become more abundant in the scrubbirds range and has the ability to kill and degrade mass amounts of forest, which can heavily effect the diversity of the forest, and could easily and rapidly displace many of the remaining scrubbirds. Forest dieback due to this fungi have been shown to increase the amount of predators in the area, but have not been proven to have any effect on the scrubbirds populations yet
Translocations to native ranges have been attempted several times with little success due to the Noisy Scrubbird requiring a very specific habitat. These translocations even required the removal of all potential predators for the scrubbird, but still had little success.
The best conservation method would be to reintroduce the scrubbird to its native ranges by carefully monitoring the populations and controlling forest fires. While natural fire cycles are very helpful to the scrubbird, a fire event in the few major concentrations of its populations could be detrimental to all previous conservation efforts.
The Torbay area is on the eastern fringe of the karri forest region, and with some notable blocks of remnant tall forest. Large granite outcrops are also common. Beaches on the bay tend towards fine white sand. Where streams occur, they are clear but stained dark brown in colour from high-tannin-content vegetation.
In November 1835, Roe and Stirling explored the Tor Bay area, scoping the area for shipbuilding. From the late 1830s to the 1860s an industry building vessels of up to 150 tons was established at Port Harding (Migo Island), using timber from the Guarinup Hills, half a mile behind the beach
A shore whaling station was established on the beach at Tor Bay behind Migo Island in 1844. Whales were taken during the periods 1844-1846 and 1861-1864.
In 1886 railway contractors C & E Millar established sawmills at Bornholm to supply timber for the construction of the Great Southern Railway (Beverley to Albany railway). Timber was initially shipped out by lighter, schooner and the small steamer Active from Port Harding (Migo Island) to Albany, and later by tramline to Elleker. In 1889 the Torbay Estate, of 22,000 acres, was granted to Millars in consideration of extending the railway from Elleker to Torbay and establishing working sawmills there. The two Bornholm mills were shifted to Torbay and enlarged.A prosperous timber settlement was in evidence at Torbay for about six years. The estate concession extended from Wilgie Hill, at the Albany end of Torbay, to Youngs, the timber being hauled by tramline from 20 miles beyond Torbay as far as Hay River, before the mills were finally moved.[1By 1895 most of the suitable timber at Torbay had been felled. The railway was again extended to Denmark in 1896. In 1898 Millars Karri and Jarrah Forests Limited offered the Torbay Estate back to the government provided they could retain ownership of the strip of land occupied by the Elleker-Torbay railway, which under their contract was to revert to the government after 14 years. The land was subdivided and sold for agricultural purposes in 1900.
WAGR rail service
Millars' Elleker-Torbay-Denmark railway line closed on 31 May 1905. During negotiations over the sale of the railway line the State leased the line and WAGR rail services began on 3 May 1907.In 1908 Millars sold the railway to the state government. Line extension works beyond Denmark were started in 1926 and on 11 June 1929 the first passenger service ran to Nornalup. The Nornalup-Denmark-Torbay-Elleker rail service was permanently shut down on 30 September 1957 and the rails were lifted in 1963
Local industries include dairy farming, beef cattle, plantation forestry, specialist horticulture, arts and crafts and tourism, along with rural businesses that service farmers (mechanics, lime supply, machinery and labour hire etc.). A seasonal commercial fishing industry occurs within the bay based on catches of herring and Australian salmon during the February–April period. Torbay has been a traditional potato growing area for over a century, particularly for seed potato production. While some pumpkins are grown and the area is suitable for cauliflower production, potatoes are the major horticultural crop. The area currently produces about 50% of Western Australia’s requirements for seed potato production.
Tor Bay, which includes Port Harding (named in 1838 by master's mate Charles Forsyth after Captain Francis Harding of HMS Pelorus) and Port Hughes (named in 1831 by Roe after Private Thomas Hughes of the 63rd Regiment) as well as Torbay Inlet, lie between Torbay Head and Stony Island. Torbay Head is the most southerly point on the mainland of Western Australia and the most western point of the Great Australian Bight. Islands within Tor Bay include Migo Island, named after the Swan River native Migo, Richard Island, named after Admiral Richard Howe, both by Roe in 1835; and Shelter Island. Popular beaches on the bay include Perkins Beach, Muttonbird Beach and Cosy Corner, all accessible by car. Cosy Corner is the most well-known, a popular family beach with picnic and camping facilities. Children's swimming lessons are held there in the summer. There are other beaches that are accessible only by four-wheel drive vehicle. The Bibbulmun Track passes around the edge of the bay, coming down long steps from the steep hills above Cosy Corner and following the beach around the curve of the bay and across the mouth of Torbay Inlet to near Shelter Island.
Gull Rock National Park is a small (2,593 acre) national park situated 25 km southeast of Albany in Western Australia. It was established in 2006, becoming Western Australia's 97th national park.
The area is backed by King George Sound to the south, Oyster Harbour to the west, Taylor Inlet to the east and farmland to the north. The park takes its name from a small island off Ledge Beach, which is not part of the park. Boiler Bay is at the eastern edge of Ledge Beach.
The Mount Martin Botanical Reserve is adjacent to the western boundary and Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve is approximately 10 kilometres to the east of the park.
The area is an almost unspoilt example of coastal east Kalgan vegetation system. Composed of granite headlands separated by sandy beaches with lakes and interdunal wetlands, the area contains a number of specific ecosystems. Rocky granite areas exist, including Mount Taylor and Mount Martin, both of which are part of the Gardner Landform unit.
The diverse landforms and soils support an array of different habitats and a large number of floral species. A complex patchwork of forest, woodlands, wetlands, sedges, granite shrublands and coastal heath is found within the park.
Melaleuca striata coastal heath grows on the lower elevations of Mount Taylor. Melaleuca striata, Banksia attenuata and Banksia coccinea are present on the heath, but their growth is stunted by the salt laden air. Anarthria scabra is predominant in the sedgeland, with Adenanthos cuneatus, Astroloma baxteri, Hypocalymma strictum, Hypolaena exsulca, Isopogon cuneatus, Lyginia barbata, Melaleuca thymoides, and Petrophile rigida also present.
The total area enclosed by the nature reserve is 4,744.7 hectares and consists of three separate areas:
A section of 4,510 hectares contains Mount Gardner, Lake Gardner, Moates Lake, rocky shoreline of Sinkers Reef, granite headlands, secluded sandy beaches such as Little Beach and Waterfall Beach and mobile dunes
A smaller section of 89 hectares about 2 kilometres (1 mi) north of the main area that includes the northern portion of Angove lake and the Angove River
Four islands - Coffin Island, Black Rock, Inner Island and Rock Dunder
Two Peoples Bay boasts unspoilt coastal scenery and is a vital area for threatened animal species. There are beaches with path access that are suitable for swimming and snorkelling. Facilities within the reserve include a boat ramp, toilets and barbecues.
Flora and fauna
The vegetation that is found in the park can be classified as follows: low forest is found north of Moates Lake, the wetland margins and close to the reserve offices. The trees reach 15 m in height and are dominated by Eucalyptusspecies including coast gum, jarrah and yate as well as other species such as marri and juniper myrtle.
Last night I was watering the garden with a hose. It is easy to see how stressed the plants are on a 38 degree day, but then I remembered that the animals in my garden need water too. So I filled some shallow bowls and placed them in quiet shady spots. During a hot Australian summer day, such an act can save a life. A small life, perhaps, but every little bit counts.
I have a small suburban garden but it still supports a range of insects, birds, frogs and reptiles. Whenever we move a pile of wood we disturb some lovely spotted geckos. Even in the city most Australians will have possums moving through the trees and skinks sheltering under the back steps. Suburbs on the edge of town have wombats, wallabies and kangaroos. Birds and insects live everywhere. On hot days all creatures will seek water and shade.
So why not add a routine to your normal gardening chores and put out some water for wildlife? Here are a few hints to ensure that the animals benefit.
Tips for watering wildlife
Use only shallow bowls so small animals do not drown. Alternatively (or additionally) add a few rocks or sticks so they can easily crawl out. Do not use metal bowls as these will become hot and may burn their feet or paws. Place the water in a shady spot, out of the way of human activity and protected from domestic pets.
Birds and tree dwelling animals will appreciate water hung at various levels. You can nail a plastic tub to a fence, or hang a modified water bottle in a tree.
If you are able to set up a hose to mist a shady corner in the garden, you will create a small haven for wildlife. I did this last night with the excuse that the lemon tree needed a good drink anyway.
Don’t worry if you don’t see the animals using your water. It is likely that they prefer privacy and will use it when you are not looking.
On the other hand, if you do see animals showing signs of heat stress, you may have to take further steps.
Caring for heat stressed wildlife
Animals that are suffering from heat stress will behave strangely. Nocturnal animals that are out during the day, tree dwelling animals sitting on the ground, or animals that are lethargic or staggering are all showing signs of stress.
The first concern about stressed wildlife is your own safety. Do not approach snakes, flying foxes, large kangaroos, eagles, hawks or goannas. Your best bet is to contact a trained wildlife carer for advice.
It is a good idea to have the phone numbers of your local wildlife carers handy, or download the wildlife rescue app.
If it is safe to do so, you can assist a heat stressed animal by picking it up in a towel, placing it in a well ventilated box in a cool spot and provide water. Do not feed the animal or handle it more than necessary. The animal may recover enough to release again in the evening, but if not you will need to take them to a wildlife carer or a vet.
Wildlife and bushfires
Unfortunately many Australians now live under the threat of bushfires and face evacuations throughout the summer months. Obviously, fires are bad for both domestic and wild animals. The best thing you can do during an evacuation is to take your dogs and cats with you and leave out plenty of water for wildlife.
If you do find injured wildlife, take them to the vet if it is safe to do so. Never go into a fire affected area searching for injured animals. This is a job best left to trained staff who are coordinated by the appropriate agencies and assisted by volunteers who have had the right training.
On the other hand, all of us can help by putting out water for wildlife. Every little bit helps.
Changing wildlife: this article is part of a series looking at how key species such as bees, insects and fish respond to environmental change, and what this means for the rest of the planet.
We may lose a lot more than honey if bees are unable to cope with the changing climate and increasing demand for agricultural land.
Your morning coffee might be a thing of the past if bees disappear, and if coffee isn’t your thing, you undoubtedly eat many of the fruit and vegetables (and chocolate) that rely on bee pollination for survival.
In fact, the world’s 25,000 bee species are responsible for pollinating a third of the food humans eat. If we lose bees, then we risk the food security of ourselves, and all the other animals that depend on bee-pollinated crops for survival.
While European (managed) honey bees steal the limelight, other wild (non-honey) bees are just as important for pollinating crops and will also be impacted by climate change. Data from all over the globe suggest that both groups are in decline, but since we do not have a global integrated and complete monitoring system of bee populations, these data do not describe the full extent of the problem.
So how well equipped are bees to survive a warming climate, and is there anything we can do to help?
Bees and plants: it’s a long-term relationship
Bees and flowering plants share a long evolutionary relationship and depend on each other for survival. Plants provide bees with food and habitat, while the bees feeding on pollen and nectar provide the plants with pollination.
To orchestrate this beautiful exchange, plants and bees rely on environmental cues (such as temperature) to coordinate their seasonal activity. However, climate change can disrupt these relationships so that bee activity periods will no longer time with flowering periods. This will cause the bees to lose a food source and plants that fail to fruit, potentially leading to extinctions of both.
Some plant-bee relationships are highly specialised. These species have evolved together so closely that a plant can depend on a single bee species in order to reproduce and vice versa.
Bees in specialist plant-bee relationships (such as this one) are most susceptible to climate induced extinction, as the loss of one will inevitably lead to the loss of the other.
More generalist bee species, that can collect food from more than one plant species, may fare better than their specialist counterparts. As the climate changes, animals and plants evolve new genetic traits to adapt to the new environment.
However, when the environment changes at a faster pace than evolution can produce new traits, species that already have the physiological and behavioural abilities within its genetic code to cope with the changes will have an advantage.
A bee species that can already access more than one food source (such as the honey bee) can quickly adapt to changing plant communities and survive when other specialist species cannot.
‘Beehaving’ differently in the heat
Bee species that can alter their behaviour to cope with high temperatures (for example by changing their activity periods to avoid the hottest part of the day) will tolerate climate stress. But these adaptive capabilities have their limits.
Increasing heat waves can directly kill bees by overheating them and/or melting wax-based nesting structures. Drought can also kill bees indirectly, by causing dehydration or starvation through the death of food plants.
Alternatively, it is possible that bees will change their range in response to changing climactic zones. As one area gets too hot, the bees can move to more tolerable climatic conditions.
While most of us think bees live in colonies, most of the world’s bees are actually solitary. In solitary species, female bees generally live alone in nests they’ve built, in which they raise their offspring.
Most bee species are also fixed in their social structures, with some species living alone while others have varying degrees of social behaviour. However, a few native bee can change their social structure depending on the environment, so bees that are solitary in one set of environmental conditions are social under another. These socially flexible species may have surprising responses to climate change.
As the weather warms and growing seasons lengthen, socially flexible bees (such as some carpenter and sweat bees) may, eventually, switch permanently from solitary behaviour to social behaviour. However this may also decrease their ability to adapt.
Bee habitats are disappearing
While changing the climate, humans have also made dramatic changes to Earth’s landscapes. Increasing human population and our consequent demands for space to live and grow food has meant that more of the bees’ habitat has been changed into urban and intensive agricultural areas.
The problems with taking over bee habitats can be partly resolved by leaving adequate wildflower borders between fields and in urban areas. This can link habitats and food sources (such as Norway’s bee highway) so that bees can move across the entire landscape.
Bees are interpretive dancers
Just as plants and bees are codependent, we are dependent on their relationship for survival and must do our best to keep bees healthy, and this means more research about all aspects of the lives of wild bees including their influence on pollination. Without knowledge of how they live and their habitat needs, we cannot adequately protect them.
By interpreting the dance of the honey bee workers, and identifying the pollen on their legs to determine which plant they are dancing about, we can find out where and when they like to forage. This information on foraging behaviour can also be used as an indicator of the biodiversity in the area, and whether the landscape is healthy for bees.
The knowledge we gain from the bees can be used to help conserve them, and in turn, conserve ourselves.
The common Hovea is a perennial short stemmed woody shrub 10 centimetres to 70 centimetres (28 in) tall. It is native to south-west Western Australia. The foliage has needle-like green leaves. The flowers are blue or purple (or very rarely white) and appear between May and November. Species of Hovea are the food plant for the caterpillar.
Meaning of name: Hovea honours Anton Pantaleon Hove, collector of plants for Kew on the West African coast, in the Crimea and India. Trisperma is from the Greek words treis, meaning three, and sperma, meaning seed. It refers to the 3-celled ovary, in contrast with the more usual 2- or 4-celled ovaries in this genus.
Banksia coccinea, commonly known as the scarlet banksia, waratah banksia or Albany banksia, is an erect shrub or small tree in the familyProteaceae. The Noongar peoples know the tree as Waddib Its growns in the wild along the south west coast of Western Australia, from Denmark to the Stokes National Park, and north to the Stirling Range, growing on white or grey sand in shrubland, heath or open woodland. Reaching up to 8 m in height, it is a single-stemmed plant that has oblong leaves, which are 3–9 cm long and 2–7 cm wide. The prominent red and white flower spikes appear mainly in the spring. As they age they develop small follicles that store seeds until opened by fire. Though widely occurring, it is highly sensitive to dieback and large populations of plants have succumbed to the disease. Around 47% of plants are protected in conservation areas, while 13% are located on road verges
Banksia coccinea plants are killed by fire and regenerates afterwards from seed released from burnt follicles. The flowers attract nectar- and insect-feeding birds, particularly honeyeaters, and a variety of insects. Widely considered one of the most attractive Banksia species, B. coccinea is a popular garden plant and one of the most important Banksia species for the cut flower industry; it is grown commercially in several countries including Australia, South Africa, Canada, the United States, New Zealand and Israel. In cultivation, B. coccinea grows well in a sunny location on well-drained soil, but it cannot survive in areas with humid or wet summers.